Germany is country which has a population of 81.879.976. It has a area of 357.111,91 km^2 and nine bordering countries, for example Poland, Czechia, Denmark and Belgium.
The capital of Germany is Berlin. Berlin is a very beautiful city, with a lot of landmarks. The most famous landmark is the “Brandenburg Gate”. It was built in 1788 and finished three years later in 1791. On the one hand “The Brandenburg Gate” is a national symbol of history in Berlin, Germany and Europe, but on the other hand it tagged the border of East and west Berlin. After 1990 it started to be a symbol of the reunion in Berlin.
nfortunately the German past is scarred by the Second World War from 1939 til 1945. Many people, especially Jews got murdered and the people had to live under control by a dictator named Adolf Hitler.
Today Germany recovers from an economic crisis. The Chancellor of Germany is called Angela Merkel.
Italy is a unitary parliamentary republic in Southern Europe. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and is approximately delimited by the Alpine watershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two biggest Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Italian territory also includes the islands of Pantelleria, 60 km (37 mi) east of the Tunisian coast and 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Sicily, and Lampedusa, at about 113 km (70 mi) from Tunisia and at 176 km (109 mi) from Sicily, in addition to many other smaller islands. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d’Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate climate. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the 5th most populous country in Europe. Among the world’s most developed countries, Italy has the 4th-largest economy in the European Union, 3rd in the Eurozone and 9th in the world by GDP (IMF, 2012).
Italy’s capital and largest city, Rome, has for centuries been the leading political and religious centre of Western civilisation, serving as the capital of both the Roman Empire and Christianity. During the Dark Ages, Italy endured cultural and social decline in the face of repeated invasions by Germanic tribes, Muslims and Normans, with Greek-Roman heritage being preserved largely by Christian monks. Beginning around the 11th century, various Italian cities, communes and maritime republics rose to great prosperity through shipping, commerce and banking (indeed, modern capitalism has its roots in Medieval Italy); concurrently, Italian culture flourished, especially during the Renaissance, which produced many notable scholars, artists, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Meanwhile, Italian explorers such as Polo, Columbus, Vespucci, and Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy would remain fragmented into many warring states for the rest of the Middle Ages, subsequently falling prey to larger European powers such as the Holy Roman Empire, France, Spain, and later Austria.
Italy would thus enter a long period of decline that lasted until the beginning of the 18th century. After many unsuccessful attempts, the second and the third wars of Italian independence resulted in the unification of most of present-day Italy between 1859 and 1866. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, the new Kingdom of Italy rapidly industrialised and acquired a colonial empire becoming a Great Power. However, Southern and rural Italy remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite victory in World War I as one of the Big Four with permanent membership in the security council of the League of Nations, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, which favoured the establishment of a Fascist dictatorship in 1922. The subsequent participation in World War II, at the side of Nazi Germany and Japan forming the Axis Alliance, ended in military defeat, economic destruction and civil war. In the years that followed, Italy abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, and enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, thus becoming one of the most developed nations in the world, with the fifth largest economy by nominal GDP by the early 1990s. Italy was a founding member of NATO in 1949 and one of the Inner Six of the European Community in 1957, which became the EU in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area, and has been a member of the Eurozone since 1999.
Covering an area of 312,685 square kilometres , Poland, also called the Republic of Poland, is the largest country in central Europe. It is bordered by Germany to the West, the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic in the South, by Ukraine and Belarus to the East, Lithuania, the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad, and the Baltic Sea lie to the North. Poland is a unitary state made up of sixteen voivodeships.
Approximately one-fifth of the land is maintained as pasture and meadows. About 27% of the total area is covered by forest. Poland is a mainly flat country: most lies at an altitude of less than 200 metres above sea level. However, the high Tatra and Carpathian mountain ranges in the south rise to a peak of 2,499 metres at Rysy on the Slovakian border. The fertile country – 47% of which is arable land – is traversed by large and slow moving rivers such as the Vistula, Odra and the Bug. The largest lakes, are Lake Sniardwy and Lake Mamry in Masuria, and Lake Lebsko and Lake Drawsko in Pomerania.
Those who live in Poland as well as those who visit it for a short period cherish the country’s beauty and diversity. During balmy summer days they enjoy spending time at the Baltic seashore, and during bright winter days they hurry up to the mountains for skiing holidays or vacations. Those who love hiking, horse riding, rowing, or simply camping and relaxing at a lake with one’s friends will, too, find plenty of charming, well-equipped, and affordable places to go.
Poland’s most important natural resources are hard coal and lignite, copper, zinc and lead ores, silver, sulphur, salt, rock salt, building stone, natural gas and oil.
Poland is a country deeply steeped in history and tradition. Its people keenly remember the most important bygone events that have shaped their fatherland and they treasure monuments, museums, castles and historical venues that remind them of their both great and oftentimes poignant past. Especially fresh is the memory of the Solidarnosc movement and its crucial and greatly consequential contribution to the demise of the Soviet rule over Central and East Europe, as well as to the breakdown of the Soviet Union itself.
Poland became the first of the central European countries to overthrow communist rule in 1989. It is the most populous state in central Europe. In 1989 it was on the verge of economic collapse, weighed down by massive foreign debt. Today, it is one of the fastest growing economies in Europe and a significant trading partner for the UK. On 13 December 2002 Poland completed negotiations to join the European Union. It signed an Accession Treaty in April 2003 and, following the public support shown in the referendum held on 8 June 2003, became a full member of the European Union on 1 May 2004. It became a member of NATO on 12 March 1999.
• Balearic Islands
(Majorca – Spain)
The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The four largest islands are: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain, with Palma as the capital. The co-official languages in the Balearic Islands are Catalan and Spanish. The current Statute of Autonomy declares the Balearic Islands as one nationality of Spain.
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is asovereign state and a member state of the European Union. It is located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. Its mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and north east by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
It is one of three countries (Morocco, France) to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Spain’s 1,214 km (754 mi) border with Portugal is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union. Spanish territory also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the African coast, and two autonomous cities in North Africa, Ceuta and Melilla, that border Morocco, plus Alborán, Chafarinas Islands, Alhucemas, Vélez de la Gomera and other small islets including Perejil. Furthermore, the town of Llívia is a Spanish exclave situated inside French territory. With an area of 505,992 km2 (195,365 sq mi), Spain is the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fifth largest country in Europe.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian peninsula around 35,000 years ago. It came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania. In the Middle Ages it was conquered by Germanic tribes and later by the Moors to the south. Spain emerged as a unified country in the 15th century, following the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs and the completion of the centuries-long reconquest, or Reconquista, of the peninsula from the Moors in 1492. Spain became an influential global empire in the early modern period, being one of the first countries to colonize the New World and leaving a legacy of over 500 million Spanish speakers today, making it the world’s second most spoken first language.
Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a parliamentary government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the thirteenth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP. Spain also has high living standards with the tenth-highest quality of life index rating in the world as of 2005. It is a member of the United Nations, NATO, OECD, and WTO.